Rice is a necessary portion of diet for people all around the world. Also, it is one of the most produced plants in the world. Rice is grown in more than a hundred countries, with a total harvested area of approximately 158 million hectares, producing more than 700 million tons annually (470 million tons of milled rice). But this crop is under threat of a destructive pest called brown plant hopper.
The brown plant hoppers are small insects. The adults measure about 4-6 mm in length and 3-4 mm in width.
BPH are among the most important pests of rice, and rice is the major staple crop for about half the world’s population. They damage rice directly through feeding and by transmitting two viruses, rice ragged stunt virus and rice grassy stunt virus. Up to 60% yield loss is common in susceptible rice cultivars attacked by BPH. BPH prefers to feed on 45-50-day old plants.
The BPH are distributed in: Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Japan, North and South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Symptoms will not be visible from outside in the early stages, but if we enter the field and tap the plants’ large number of this insect can be seen. They are visible only when the damage has been severe, the plants present a burnt-up appearance.
Both the nymphs and adults remain at the ground level and suck the plant sap. It is a typical vascular feeder primarily sucking phloem sap leading to hopper burn.
The grain setting is also affected to a great extent. During sustained feeding, it excretes a large amount of honeydew. It also acts as a vector of the virus diseases like a grassy stunt, wilted stunt, and ragged stunt.
News was reported in Odhisha TV that Brown Plant Hopper Attack: Farmers Gherao Agri Official In Sambalpur
By Odishatv Bureau On Oct 24, 2017 – Odhisha TV
Sambalpur: The increased worries of farmers over brown plant hopper (BPH) attack on the paddy and non-paddy crops in Sambalpur district took a different turn today with the farmers’ union today staging a demonstration outside the Deputy Director of Agriculture’s office here. The farmers gheraoed the district deputy director of agriculture by forcing him to sit down in an open space to apprise him of their problems along with measures to mitigate the issue.
Following the gherao, Sambalpur DDA Pradosh Samal shot a letter to the deputy director of agriculture, Bhubaneswar with detailed block-wise information on the BPH destruction in paddy and non-paddy crops. The letter addressed to Deputy Director of Agriculture, Bhubaneswar, stated that of the total 20 blocks in the district, 9 are badly affected by the pest. As many as 534 villages under 137 panchayats are affected due to the pest menace, the letter added.
Single variety paddy seeds reason for pest attacks in Odisha: AIKMS
BERHAMPUR, JANUARY 22, 2018 – The Hindu
According to experts, no seed variety is to be used continuously for more than a decade
Unscientific use of single variety of paddy seeds by farmers for more than a decade is the key reason behind the large-scale destruction of standing crops by pests like brown planthopper in Odisha, the All India Kisan Mazdoor Sabha (AIKMS) has said.
The organization came to the conclusion after conducting its own ground-level study. Through its practical experimentation, it has also proved that organic cultivation of traditional paddy seed breeds makes it immune to such pests in the State.
Brown Plant Hopper: A surgical strike that farmers in India’s granary were least prepared for
Written by Harish Damodaran | The Indian Express | Published: October 27, 2016
Hot and dry weather raises the chances of whitefly attacks, as Punjab’s farmers discovered for cotton last year. This year, it is humid and warm conditions, particularly in September, that has put paid to their hopes of a bumper paddy harvest. The villain: an innocuous-looking insect called the brown plant hopper (BPH).
Unlike most other pests, this one typically strikes very late, when the paddy crop is already 80-90 days old and in the final grain-filling stage. The female moths lay eggs from early-September that hatch within 10 days. The larvae emerging from them are the real baddies. These immature nymphs settle at the lower stem or culm of the paddy plant, from where they start sucking the sap. Since this sap rich in carbohydrates is transported through the phloem tissues to the grains that are still forming, it being sucked also impacts filling.
Traditionally many pesticides have been used to prevent the nuisance caused by these insects but all of them have proved ineffective. Now, we no longer should depend on these conventional, toxic insecticides to deal with these pests!
So, what to use to keep these pests away?
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