Are transgenic crop the future..??

For thousands of year, cotton has been significant crop in India contributing to its rich history of textiles. Despite the agricultural legacy cotton farmer faced many challenges such as serious pest attack impacting crop yield. 90% of the cotton farmers experienced significant crop damage due to an insect called cotton bollworm. The cotton bollworm also called as corn earworm or sorghum head worm is a serious pest to the cotton plant.

In 2002 Bt. cotton was introduced in India dramatically changing the future of cotton production in India. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a bacterium that occurs naturally in the soil and produces proteins that kill certain insects. Through biotechnology, scientists used these naturally occurring Bt proteins to develop insect-protected crops that help farmers protect against insect damage and destruction. When targeted insects eat the plant containing the protein, they ultimately die.

But in the recent years, there have been articles flooding of Transgenic Bt cotton plants that have a build up a resistance to the lethal protein and are being attacked by bollworms.

The potential of pests to develop resistance against the defense mechanisms of crops is well-known and is not unique to genetically engineered plants. Insects may develop resistance to a crop defense no matter how it was developed. The crop defense might be a chemical or biological agent, a gene already in the crop species and transferred to commercial plants by conventional plant breeding methods, or a gene introduced by recombinant DNA technology. Because more than 500 insects and mites already have acquired resistance to a number of insecticides, there is concern that similar resistance to Bt toxins could develop.

Several major pests, including the tobacco budworm, Colorado potato beetle, Indian mealmoth and diamondback moth, have demonstrated the ability to adapt. It has been reported that the diamond backmoth evolved high levels of resistance in the field as a result of repeated use of Bt. As Bt use increases on more acres, some scientists have predicted that insect resistance to Bt will be a major problem. Considerable controversy exists about how Bt should be managed to prolong its usefulness.

Bt resistance in pink bollworm is caused by changes to a gut protein called cadherin. In susceptible insects, cadherin binds to the Bt toxin, eventually leading to the death of the insect. When mutations in the gene encoding cadherin block this binding, the insect becomes resistant.

There were only two benefits of Bt cotton. One, it controls bollworm, due to which the yield is protected. Two, it reduces the use of insecticides meant for bollworm control but after bollworm developed resistance to the Bt. Cotton. The genetically modified method has to be given a second thought.

Let us have a look at some evidence of the damage caused by these pests.

Bt. cotton falling to pest, Maharashtra tensed

Jul 5, 2017

This article was published by Ms. Bhavika Jain in Times of India.

MUMBAI: Genetically modified or Bt cotton is no longer resistant to pink bollworm a major pest in Maharashtra, prompting the state government to write to the Union government to seek its intervention.

A research report by Dr. K R Kranthi, former director of Central Institute of Cotton Research (CICR), shows that pink bollworm has developed resistance to Bollgard-II Bt cotton not only in Maharashtra but other cotton-growing states as well. Bollgard-II is the Bt hybrid variety that was introduced in 2010.

Bijay Kumar, principal secretary, agriculture department, said, “There are nearly 85 private Bt cotton seed-producing companies in the state and we have been getting several complaints of crop failure from farmers.”

The issue assumes significance given that Maharashtra is the largest cotton-growing state in the country. Nearly 40 lakh hectares or 35% of the cultivatable area is under cotton production. Nearly 96% cotton-growing farmers in the state use BG-II Bt cotton seeds for cultivation.

Last year, nearly 90% of cotton farms in Jalna were affected and farmers had approached the state government seeking compensation for the losses they had incurred. It could not do much, though. The state government has found itself in a tight spot and asked the Union government to denotify  Bt cotton seed varieties prone to pink bollworm. The government also wants the Centre to undertake an awareness campaign across the state on failed resistance of the Bt variety to pests so that farmers can make an informed choice. Pink bollworm is a small, thin, gray moth with fringed wings-the most damaging of all pests that attack cotton crop in the country. The female moth lays eggs on cotton balls and larvae emerge only to destroy entire fields by chewing through the cotton lint to feed on seeds.

Cotton crop hit by severe pest attack in South Punjab

September 26, 2017

MULTAN: The Cotton crop has entered a critical stage in South Punjab as a number of sucking and chewing pests have attacked the crop.

In most of the fields, whitefly and pink bollworm have damaged the crops inflicting losses of millions of rupees. These pests should be controlled as early as possible so that cotton crop can be saved from a considerable loss in final yield.

This was said by Agricultural Information Assistant Director Naveed Asmat Kahloon in Multan on Monday. He was speaking to representatives of electronic and print media in his office.

He said that the teams of agriculture departments conducted pest scouting in the fields on daily basis. The hot spots of pests, especially whitefly, thrips and pink bollworm were being observed in the fields.

He added that symptom of pink bollworm attack was an appearance of rosette flowers. “The rosette flowers must be plucked and destroyed as early as possible,” he pointed out.

He pointed out that if farmers apply pesticides against pink bollworm before its attack, it would promote whitefly infestation and create resistance in other pests against the pesticides.

The official advised farmers to apply pesticides against pink bollworm after pest scouting by some experts. “In case it is found to have reached ETL then farmers should apply pesticides after consulting agriculture officials,” he said.

To counter the problem, the Punjab Agriculture Research Board and the Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad (UAF) inked an agreement for kicking off projects worth Rs75 million to manage the threat posed by whitefly and pink bollworm that inflict a loss of billions to the national economy.

To combat this we need to find a new technology without modifying the plant. The solution to this problem is with CTech Corporation. Our product TermirepelTM is based on Mother Nature gift of sense bestowed to these insects. Our product does not kill the target species but only repels it. Our technology is based on the ancient Vedas with the modern technology.

Our company believes in the principles of sustainability and eco-balance. We do not want to imbalance the cycle of life; therefore Termirepel™ can be easily described as insect aversive, used also against all types of insects and which works on the mechanism of repellency. It means that it does not kill the target insects but only repels them, thus balancing the ecology and helping in maintaining the goal of sustainability. There are more than 500 species against which this product works.

This product can be easily used against bollworm. Our products are available in the form of a masterbatch which can be included in the agricultural cover film, mulches, wraps, greenhouse film etc. Liquid Concentrate and lacquer can be applied as a topical application.

Nothing in life is as smooth as the airplane runway. There are bound to be hurdles and bumps in our way. But how we tackle them defines our success.

The little critters: Midges

They are often mistaken as mosquitoes because of their similar size and body shape. They are tiny flying insects with a wingspan of 2-3 mm. They are also called as the blind mosquitoes.
Guess who are those?
  Those are the midges!

These little critters are tiny flies, about the size of a pinhead.

Male midges tend to have feathery antennae, something not seen on mosquitoes. Also, they rest with their two front legs hovering above the surface.

Midges can be found on along the coast, shores, and beds of any body of water. They are also found around ponds or streams in late afternoon and evening in swarms that produce a humming sound. Midges may breed in water or manure or under tree bark. They lay their eggs in shallow waters and worm-like larvae are hatched.

Due to their poor flying ability, they are often at the mercy of wind currents and can be blown into backyards. For this reason, they may be considered a nuisance to homeowners. They may take shelters under soffits, eaves etc.

They easily get attracted to artificial lights at night and thus are attracted towards many homes. Spiders are their predators which get attracted to the places where midges are found.

Only the female midges bite. They need a protein-rich meal of fresh blood in order to mature their eggs. Both the males and the females rely on sugar meals for energy for flight but the females need more than this to ensure the next generation. Female midges feed on the blood of birds as well as mammals. Each species has its own preferred choice of host. Most of the animals they bite are cattle, sheep, and deer but they can also feast on human skin, leaving an irritating bite mark that can swell up.

Biting midges are most active under calm conditions. They tend to bite around dawn and dusk but may continue to bite through the night. On overcast days they are also known to bite throughout the day. In order to develop more eggs, they need more protein and hunt down blood in order to boost their supplies.

When they bite, midges firstly pierce the skin before pumping saliva into the wound to stop the blood from clotting. It’s the saliva that then often produces a reaction in humans, which can lead to itchy red spots that can last minutes or days. In some extreme cases, people can also develop fluid-filled blisters and be swelling as a response to their midge bite. Most individuals are unaware they are being bitten at the time.

Midges are often thought to be a problem unique to Scotland but that is untrue as they can be found in many Northern areas of England and Wales and, thanks, climate change, they seem to be spreading even further South and East each year. Areas such as the Highlands and Western Scotland suffer the worst when compared to the rest of the country.

Below is the evidence where midges are found causing trouble to humans:

Experts warn HUNDREDS OF BILLIONS of midges set to swarm the north of Scotland

By Mike Merritt – 14th June 2017

The number of the biting critters is officially up 100 percent on last year with a second bumper hatch due in weeks.

An incredible 139 billion midges are in the Highlands and Islands – 44.8 million per person.

Now leading midge expert Dr. Alison Blackwell said one trap in Glencoe caught 1.3 million of the biting beasties last week – double the number in the same period last year when weekly catches were just 680,000.

Hogan pushes Kamenetz on money for midges

By Dresser Reporter –  The Baltimore Sun

Midges — those tiny swarming insects that drive people indoors — have become the latest subject of political jockeying between Gov. Larry Hogan and Baltimore County Executive Kevin Kamenetz.

On Wednesday, the Republican governor called on Kamenetz, a Democrat, to come up with $650,000 for a spraying program to combat the persistent midge nuisance on the Back River in the eastern part of the county.

Hogan, speaking during a meeting of the Board of Public Works, said his administration offered last week to pay half the cost of spraying the gnat-like insects this year and next if the county matches that sum.

This shows that such small creatures can cause a huge nuisance. This menace needs to be stopped. Also, the solution to stop the nuisance caused by the midges has to be effective and environment-friendly.

C Tech Corporation has a solution against midges menace.

We, at C Tech Corporation, have thought about this problem in detail and have come up with a viable solution. The solution is named as Termirepel™.  We are the sole manufacturers of the product Termirepel™.

Our company believes in the principles of sustainability and eco-balance. We do not want to imbalance the cycle of life; therefore Termirepel™ can be easily described as insect aversive, used also against all types of insects and which works on the mechanism of repellency. It means that it does not kill the target insects but only repel them, thus balancing the ecology and helping in maintaining the goal of sustainability. There are more than 500 species of insects against which this product works.

This product can be easily used against a number of insects. It can be used in terms of lacquer as well as liquid form. It can be coated on the end applications and thus midges can be kept away from homes, buildings and other public places.

Pesticides in your Body

You might remember hearing the tragic news when 13 kids died in Dinajpur, Bangladesh when they had consumed highly toxic chemicals endosulfan which was sprayed on litchi orchards

….or when in Karnataka, India 34 sheep, including a few goats were found dead in Nrupathunga town, after they allegedly consumed water that contained traces of chemicals from pesticides.

Each time we hear about such tragic cases of pesticide poisoning, the obvious question is, “how can we prevent this from happening again?”

Pesticides are chemical substances that are meant to kill pests. In general, a pesticide is a chemical or a biological agent such as a virus, bacterium, antimicrobial, or disinfectant that deters, incapacitates, kills, pests.

This use of pesticides is so common that the term pesticide is often treated as synonymous with plant protection product. It is commonly used to eliminate or control a variety of agricultural pests that can damage crops and livestock and reduce farm productivity.

The most common of these are herbicides which account for approximately 80% of all pesticide use.

Most pesticides are intended to serve as plant protection products (also known as crop protection products), which in general, protect plants from weeds, fungi, or insects.

Target pests can include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, molluscs, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes(roundworms), and microbes that destroy property, cause nuisance, or spread disease, or are disease vectors.

Pesticides are highly toxic to humans and other species. According to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, 9 of the 12 most dangerous and persistent organic chemicals are organochlorine pesticides.

The toxic chemicals in these are designed to deliberately released into the environment. Though each pesticide is meant to kill a certain pest, but a very large percentage of pesticides reach a destination other than their target. Instead, they enter the air, water, sediments, and even end up in our food.

Pesticides have been linked with human health hazards, from short-term impacts such as headaches and nausea to chronic impacts like cancer, reproductive harm.

The use of these also decreases the general biodiversity in the soil. If there is no chemicals in the soil there is a higher soil quality, and this allows for higher water retention, which is necessary for plants to grow.

Let us look at the below news article that was published by Mr. Brett on futurity.org

Common pesticide may cause lung problems in kids.

August 16th, 2017

The most heavily used pesticide in California, elemental sulfur, may harm the respiratory health of children who live near farms that use it, new research suggests.

In a study of children in the Salinas Valley’s agricultural community, researchers found significant associations between elemental sulfur use and poorer respiratory health.

The study, which appears in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives, linked reduced lung function, more asthma-related symptoms, and higher asthma medication use in children living about a half-mile or less from recent elemental sulfur applications compared to unexposed children.

The Environmental Protection Agency generally considers elemental sulfur as safe for the environment and human health, but previous studies have shown that it is a respiratory irritant to exposed farmworkers.

Elemental sulfur’s effect on residential populations, especially children, living near treated fields has not previously been studied despite the chemical’s widespread use and potential to drift from the fields where it is applied. This study links agricultural use of sulfur with poorer respiratory health in children living nearby.

Elemental sulfur is allowed for use on conventional and organic crops to control fungus and other pests and is very important to both systems. It is the most heavily used agricultural pesticide in California and Europe. In California alone, more than 21 million kilograms of elemental sulfur were applied in agriculture in 2013.

“Sulfur is widely used because it is effective and low in toxicity to people. It is naturally present in our food and soil and is part of normal human biochemistry, but breathing in sulfur dust can irritate airways and cause coughing,” says coauthor Asa Bradman, associate director of the Center for Environmental Research and Children’s Health at the University of California, Berkeley’s School of Public Health.

For the study, the research team examined associations between lung function and asthma-related respiratory symptoms in hundreds of children living near fields where sulfur had been applied.

The study found several associations between poorer respiratory health and nearby elemental sulfur use. A 10-fold increase in the estimated amount of sulfur used within 1 kilometer of a child’s residence during the year prior to pulmonary evaluation was associated with 3.5-fold increased odd in asthma medication usage and two-fold increased odds in respiratory symptoms such as wheezing and shortness of breath.

The study also found that each 10-fold increase in the amount of elemental sulfur applied in the previous 12 months within a 1-kilometer radius of the home was associated with an average decrease of 143 milliliters per second (mL/s) in the maximal amount of air that the 7-year-old children could forcefully exhale in one second.

“This study provides the first data consistent with anecdotal reports of farmworkers and shows that residents, in this case, children, living near fields may be more likely to have respiratory problems from nearby agricultural sulfur applications,” says senior author Brenda Eskenazi, a professor at the School of Public Health.

Given elemental sulfur’s widespread use worldwide, the study authors call urgently for more research to confirm these findings and possible changes in regulations and application methods to limit impacts of sulfur use on respiratory health.

We need to move toward a more sustaining and low toxic methods by which we can protect our environment and protect the human civilization.

The solution to above is been given by CTech Corporation. Its product  Termirepel™ is extremely low concern extremely low toxic, non-carcinogenic and non-mutagenic compounds and non-hazardous insect/termite aversive.

Anti Termite which has been designed for polymeric applications as well as natural materials like wood. It combines the best of chemistry and green practices to give an environmentally safe product which keeps away effectively while at the same time guaranteeing safety to the environment, plants, animals and fragile ecosystems. It is a coming of age product which heralds an era of environmental consciousness and maintains a delicate balance while addressing problems caused by insects in myriad applications without causing any harm.

Rise of beetle infestation in your woods and forests!!!

Are the trees appearing to be dead?

And does the tree bark appears to be dry, damaged and sickly brown, without any sheen?

Then it’s probably because of the nasty bug commonly known as THE BARK BEETLE!

Yes, the bark beetle, one of about 220 types of Insect Genera with 6,000 species in the subfamily Scolytinae, are responsible for the damage to forests trees.

Are you aware of the havoc created by these tiny bark beetles in California!?

If not then have a glance at the damage caused to the trees from the following image.

Aerial surveys around the state show more than 20 million dead trees.

This fact is that the bark beetle infestation is not limited to only California.

The ravenous insects have decimated 45 million acres of forest in the Western United States in recent years, including 15 million acres of Forest Service land.

These are the more recent evidences for the bark beetle infestation in woods.

8,600 bags of wood recalled over bark beetle fears

By Conor Macauley BBC NI Agriculture & Environment Correspondent

8 September 2017 |Northern Ireland

Six major retailers in Northern Ireland have had to destroy or send back thousands of bags of firewood they had on sale because it posed a potential risk to commercial forestry.

A total of 8,600 bags of conifer firewood were taken off the shelves.It followed an inspection by plant inspectors from the Forest Service.

They found the wood was from Britain where a certain type of beetle exists that is not present in NI, and that the wood did not comply with regulations.

Beetles Threatening Alabama Timber

By Alex Aubuchon & Apr student reporter Allison Mollenkamp  Sep 5, 2017

Alabama’s eleven billion dollar timber industry could be at risk due to a very small bug.

Southern Pine Beetle populations have reached epidemic levels in Montgomery County. The beetles are also found in the Oakmulgee district of the Talladega National Forest and an area including Marengo, Clarke, and Choctaw counties.

Tree-Eating Beetles March Northward, Lured by Milder Winters

By HIROKO TABUCHI | AUG. 28, 2017

For lovers of the stately pine forests of the Northeast, sightings of a destructive tree-eating beetle in recent years have been nothing short of alarming.

Southern pine beetles are now frequently spotted in New Jersey, New Yorkand parts of New England. And their range will only grow farther as the planet continues to warm, according to a study published on Monday in the journal Nature Climate Change.

By midcentury, some 40,000 square miles of the pitch pine forests from eastern Ohio to southern Maine will be hospitable to the beetle. And by 2080, vast areas of forest in the northeastern United States and into Ontario and Quebec will be vulnerable.

The bark beetles responsible for such deep infestation are the tiny pesky pests of size approximately 5 mm. Bark beetles reproduce in the inner bark (living and dead phloem and cambium tissues) of trees. Adults typically appear in the spring and females deposit eggs in galleries just under the bark. The eggs hatch into small white legless larvae with brown heads. The larvae tunnel under the bark as they eat and grow, producing winding tunnels between the bark and the sapwood of the tree.

Though small, the Bark beetles play an important role in forest ecology, for example by creating complex early successional forest. Infestations can have significant economic impact.

In undisturbed forests, bark beetles serve the purpose of hastening the recycling and decomposition of dead and dying wood and renewing the forest. Bark beetles often attack trees that are already weakened by disease, drought, smog, overcrowding, conspecific beetles, or physical damage.

Individuals are not much larger than a piece of cooked rice. They survive in trees that are stressed or diseased and cannot secrete enough defensive resin, or sap, to drown the beetles. The beetles emit pheromones that attract other beetles. This can result in heavy infestations and eventually death of the tree.

There is an urgent need to find an effective solution to protect our wood?

We have one!!!!

Our company C Tech Corporation provides you with an eco-friendly solution Termirepel™.

Termirepel™ manufactured by using green practices is developed against these insects. It is an excellent aversive which not only protect wood from beetle infestation but also reduces the colonial expansion of them in woods.

Termirepel™ is extremely low concern, low toxic, non-hazardous and non-mutagenic INSECT aversive.

It is durable at extreme climatic conditions such as changes in temperature, rainfall, etc. Our product is ROHS, ROHS2, ISO 9001:2000, ISO 14001:1996 complaint and FIFRA exempted. Our product will not kill the targeted as well as non-targeted species but only repel.

Termirepel™ is available in many forms i.e. coating, Liquid solution and Lacquer.

Besides this we offer pre dispersed Termirepel™ plastic masterbatches that can be added to film, pipes, even cables to protect them from the ravaging insects

The Breathable Termirepel™ lacquer is a proper solution to be used for wood protection.

Our patented Termirepel™ Breathable product lacquer can be applied on the wooden surfaces of antiques, heritage structures, utility poles, fences, shipping industry, etc.

The following images show the application of lacquer form over wood surface.

Sample I was without coating and Sample II was with coating of our Termirepel™ lacquer or coating product and was tested under field conditions for several years.

It can be clearly seen that sample I is completely destroyed by pests and  the Termirepel™ Treated sample II was pest free which shows our product efficiency, while maintaining ecological balance as none of our products are toxic either to animals, insects or the environment.

The lacquer is transparent and breathable and is applied as direct coating over the wood surface to be covered.

Termirepel™ Lacquers and coatings do not interfere with the aesthetic properties of the application.

Termirepel™ Lacquers and coatings enhances the properties of wood by adding glossy appearance.

Thus Termirepel™ Lacquers and coatings provides you with the best protection from beetle infestation in woods in an ecofriendly way.

Talk to us, for any problems with insects, animals or both!!!!

WE HAVE A SOLUTION FOR YOU!!!!!

www.ctechcorporation.com

www.termirepel.com

www.combirepel.com

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